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Sentinel node biopsy is an effective option for early-stage cervical cancer May 31, 2009

Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
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Sentinel node biopsy is an effective option for early-stage cervical cancer

Published: 31/05/2009

A prospective multicenter study conducted by researchers in France suggests that the majority of women with early-stage cervical cancer can safely undergo sentinel node (SN) biopsy – a technique in which only one to three lymph nodes are removed to determine whether cancer has spread – in lieu of the traditional, more invasive pelvic lymph node removal. This study, presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009 meeting, showed that SN biopsy was just as useful as full pelvic lymph node removal for identifying even small amounts of cancer cells that spread to lymph nodes in atypical areas of the pelvis.

“Sentinel node biopsy is a good option for women with cervical cancer because it enables us to remove fewer lymph nodes to get information about cancer spread, and could decrease the risk of complications from surgery, such as lymphedema,” said Dr. Fabrice Lecuru, professor at George Pompidou European Hospital in Paris, and the study’s lead author. “Previous studies have shown that sentinel node biopsy can be used to assess cancer spread in usual areas of the pelvis, but our findings add to this growing body of research by showing that this approach is also effective for identifying cancer spread in less common areas of the pelvis and the abdomen. This approach may become a new standard of care for early-stage cervical cancer.”

Ten to 15 per cent of patients with early-stage cervical cancer experience recurrence. Some are due to lymph nodes that were missed during surgery or because of undetected cancer spread to other lymph nodes. During standard surgery, several pelvic lymph nodes are removed and examined for the presence of cancer cells. During SN biopsy, however, a blue dye and radioactive substance that can be traced with imaging techniques are used to locate the first lymph node (the sentinel node) where cancer cells would travel after leaving the cervix. If this node is free of cancer cells, no other lymph nodes should be removed. Since the removal of lymph nodes may impair lymphatic drainage and cause uncomfortable swelling in the legs called lymphedema, doctors have been assessing SN biopsy (which is routinely used for breast cancer and melanoma patients) to see if it can be used to gauge cervical cancer spread.

Prior studies have shown that SN biopsy can be used in cervical cancer patients to predict cancer spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis most likely to contain cancer cells. But in this study, Dr. Lecuru and his colleagues also evaluated the biopsy of sentinel nodes in atypical areas of the pelvis in 128 women with early-stage cervical cancer who also had full pelvic lymph node removal for comparison. They then analysed sentinel nodes for micrometastastic cancer (0.2 to 2 mm in size) and isolated tumour cells as well as areas of cancer greater than 2 mm (macrometastases).

After analysing these nodes, researchers demonstrated that full pelvic lymph node removal and its associated complications could have been avoided in 81.2 per cent of women. Researchers also found that in nearly 40 per cent of women, SN biopsy alone would have provided additional, important information about patients’ disease; for example, SN biopsy was more useful than routine techniques for showing that lymphatic drainage occurred via unusual pathways to less commonly explored areas of the pelvis or of the abdomen, and for detecting micrometastases or isolated tumour cells.

eCancerMedicalScience

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Body Weight Makes No Difference in Ovarian Cancer Survival May 25, 2009

Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
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Body Weight Makes No Difference in Ovarian Cancer Survival

By Todd Neale, Staff Writer, MedPage Today
Published: December 30, 2008
Reviewed by Robert Jasmer, MD; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

BIRMINGHAM, Ala., Dec. 30 — Obese patients with epithelial ovarian cancer do not appear to have worse survival than their slimmer counterparts, a retrospective chart review showed.

Obese and non-obese patients had similar progression-free survival (17 versus 11 months, P=0.14) and overall survival (48 versus 40 months, P=0.37) following primary cytoreductive surgery that resulted in similar rates of optimal debulking, Kellie Matthews, M.D., of the University Alabama at Birmingham, and colleagues reported online in Gynecologic Oncology.

All patients received chemotherapy administered according to their actual body weight. Often, chemotherapy is administered based on ideal weight, which may lead to insufficient doses for obese patients, according to the researchers.

Some past studies have suggested that obesity is an independent predictor of lower survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, but others have not. Few have included information on differences in rates of optimal debulking between obese and non-obese patients, the researchers said.

To explore the issue, they reviewed charts for 304 patients with FIGO stages II to IV epithelial ovarian cancer from a gynecologic oncology database from 1996 to 2005.

All patients underwent primary cytoreductive surgery followed by IV taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy dosed according to actual body weight.

Nearly a quarter (23.4%) were obese and the rest had a body mass index of less than 30 kg/m2.

Obese and non-obese patients had similar disease stage, grade, and histology, rates of platinum sensitivity, and administration of chemotherapy.

Obese patients were significantly more likely to be younger than 65 (P=0.02) and to be black (P=0.01).

There were no significant differences between the groups in estimated blood loss, time spent in the operating room, or operative complications. Only wound complications were more common in the obese group (11% versus 2%, P<0.001).

Rates of optimal debulking — defined as a lack of residual tumors greater than 1 cm in diameter — were similar in obese and non-obese patients (52% versus 51%, P=0.88), in spite of potential challenges to the surgical treatment of obese patients.

Such potential difficulties include comorbid chronic illnesses, administration of anesthesia, operative complications, and technical challenges, the researchers said.

“This demonstrates that any disadvantage obesity affords in the treatment of ovarian cancer is likely not related to the surgeon’s ability to achieve optimal cytoreduction,” the researchers said.

Although obese patients had a lower recurrence rate (68% versus 79%, P=0.04), there were no significant differences in progression-free and overall survival between the two groups.

The authors acknowledged that the study had several limitations, including the retrospective design, a trend toward poorer outcomes in underweight women that could not be compared with outcomes in obese women because of small patient numbers, potential selection bias, and optimal debulking rates that were lower than those found in other studies.

MedPage Today

Incorporating Laparoscopy in the Practice of a Gynecologic Oncology Service: Actual Impact Beyond Clinical Trials Data. May 25, 2009

Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
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Incorporating Laparoscopy in the Practice of a Gynecologic Oncology Service: Actual Impact Beyond Clinical Trials Data.

Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 May 21

Ghezzi F, Cromi A, Uccella S, Siesto G, Zefiro F, Bolis P.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Insubria, Del Ponte Hospital, Varese, Italy, fabio.ghezzi@uninsubria.it.

BACKGROUND: Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic management of gynecologic cancers have been established by numerous clinical trials. However, the degree to which such results are achievable outside the context of formal research programs and the actual extent of laparoscopy uptake since its introduction are unclear. Purpose of this study was to examine the impact upon operative and cancer outcomes of the incorporation of laparoscopy into the surgical practice of our gynecologic oncology service.

METHODS: Data from 383 consecutive women undergoing surgery for the treatment of an apparently early-stage gynecologic cancer between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed. Integration of minimally access surgery for the treatment of invasive malignancies began with borderline ovarian tumors in 2001 and proceeded sequentially to include endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer patients.

RESULTS: The annual proportion of laparoscopic cases has increased significantly over the study period from 7.7% in 2001 to 90.9% in 2008 (P < 0.0001 for trend). A temporal trend toward reduction in estimated blood loss was observed in both endometrial cancer and cervical cancer patients (P < 0.0001). There was a significant decrease in the percentage of patients requiring blood transfusions [18 (17.1%) during the period 2000-2002, 19 (13.6%) during 2003-2005, and 8 (5.8%) during 2006-2008; P = 0.005 for trend]. Length of hospital stay has decreased significantly over time for all disease sites (P < 0.0001 for endometrial and cervical cancer; P = 0.02 for ovarian cancer). No difference was found in median operative time, number of lymph nodes harvested, complication rates, 1- and 2-year disease-free survival, and overall survival when data of subsequent time periods were compared.

CONCLUSIONS: Substantial utilization of laparoscopy in the existing practice of a gynecologic oncology service provided benefits to patients without detrimental effects on clinical outcomes. The relatively short follow-up time of laparoscopic cases disallows firm conclusions on long-term survival.

SpringerLink

The biology of ovarian cancer: new opportunities for translation. May 25, 2009

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The biology of ovarian cancer: new opportunities for translation.

Bast RC Jr, Hennessy B, Mills GB.
Departments of Experimental Therapeutics and Systems Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcolmbe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Over the past two decades, the 5-year survival for ovarian cancer patients has substantially improved owing to more effective surgery and treatment with empirically optimized combinations of cytotoxic drugs, but the overall cure rate remains approximately 30%. Many investigators think that further empirical trials using combinations of conventional agents are likely to produce only modest incremental improvements in outcome. Given the heterogeneity of this disease, increases in long-term survival might be achieved by translating recent insights at the molecular and cellular levels to personalize individual strategies for treatment and to optimize early detection.

Nature Reviews