National Foundation for Cancer Research Funds Novel Approach to Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer February 26, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, Uncategorized, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
Tags: cancer research, early detection, ovarian cancer, research grant
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National Foundation for Cancer Research Funds Novel Approach to Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer
Feb 23, 2012
LBUQUERQUE, N.M., Feb 23, 2012 (BUSINESS WIRE) — The National Foundation for Cancer Research has awarded a grant to Dr. Robert C. Bast, Jr. of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center to work with Senior Scientific LLC, a company owned by Manhattan Scientifics MHTX 0.00% , to apply Senior Scientifics’ technology to the early detection of ovarian cancer.
Senior Scientific has pioneered a novel technology using special magnetic sensors and magnetic nanoparticles for a highly sensitive and very specific approach to cancer detection.
The new grant, entitled “SQUID Imaging for Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer,” will augment Dr. Bast’s ongoing program at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center with this emerging technology. Dr. Bast is a world leader in the early detection of ovarian cancer and was responsible for the discovery of the most accurate marker for this disease, CA-125.
The principal challenge in this grant is to overcome the problem of early detection of ovarian cancer where only 25% of ovarian cancer patients are currently detected in stage I. When the disease can be detected in Stage 1, 90% of those patients can be cured.
V. Gerald Grafe, president of Senior Scientific, said, “We are delighted with this support from the National Foundation for Cancer Research for our cooperation with Dr. Bast and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The focus of the grant is to combine Senior Scientifics’ highly sensitive technology, developed by our founder, Edward R. Flynn, PhD, with the expertise in cancer-markers developed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center by Dr. Bast. Success of the program will allow us to detect ovarian cancer much earlier, leading to life-saving treatment for ovarian cancer patients.”
Dr. Flynn’s research was initially funded by the NIH, with the initial objective to be able to spot cancerous breast tumors years earlier than a mammogram can, with no radiation and high specificity and has now been applied to ovarian cancer. Dr. Flynn’s technology uses microscopic iron oxide nanoparticles, attached to known breast cancer antibodies, which specifically bind to breast cancers. The bound nanoparticles create a magnetic signal that is detected by an ultra sensitive magnetic sensor device developed by Dr. Flynn; this patented technology enables the technician to see the cancer with as few as 100,000 cells. A mammogram typically cannot detect a tumor until at least 100 million cells are present.
The new Ovarian Cancer grant triggers collaboration between Drs. Bast, Flynn & a team led by Richard S. Larson, MD, PhD, Vice Chancellor UNM Health Sciences Center in New Mexico.
About Manhattan Scientifics
Manhattan Scientifics Inc. ( http://www.mhtx.com ) is located in New Mexico, New York and Montreal. It is focused on technology transfer and commercialization of disruptive technologies in the nano medicine space. The company is presently developing commercial medical prosthetics applications for its ultra fine grain metals and plans to commercialize the cancer research work and nano medical applications developed by Senior Scientific LLC, a unit of the Company.
This press release contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to a number of risks, assumptions and uncertainties that could cause the Company’s actual results to differ materially from those projected in such forward-looking statements. Management at Manhattan Scientifics believes that purchase of its shares should be considered to be at the high end of the risk spectrum. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made and are not guarantees of future performance. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements.
SOURCE: Manhattan Scientifics, Inc.
Endometriosis increases ovarian cancer risk February 26, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
Tags: endometriosis, ovarian cancer, screening test
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Endometriosis increases ovarian cancer risk
By Stephen Adams
Thursday February 23 2012
Celeste Leigh Pearce from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, lead author of the study, said the “breakthrough” could lead to screening programmes or risk-reduction surgery for higher-risk women.
She and her team found that endometriosis tripled a woman’s lifetime risk of developing a type called clear cell ovarian cancer, from 1 in 500 to one in 180.
It also more than doubled the risk of two other types, called endometrioid and low-grade serous ovarian cancer, from one in 400 to one in 180.
The US researchers made their conclusions in The Lancet Oncology after looking at data from over 23,000 women, of whom almost 8,000 had invasive ovarian cancer.
Dr Paul Pharoah from Cambridge University said it was “well established” that having endometriosis increased a woman’s lifetime risk of all types of ovarian cancer from about one in 50 to one in 40.
Prof Hani Gabra, director of the Ovarian Cancer Action Research Centre at Imperial College London, described the study as “interesting”.
“However, most women with endometriosis will not go on to develop ovarian cancer,” he added.
“It is important that all women should be aware of the signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer and consult their GP if they are concerned.”
About 10 per cent of women are thought to develop endometriosis, where womb lining tissue develops outside the uterus, although estimates vary. It can cause painful periods, while sex can hurt, and it can reduce fertility too.
– Stephen Adams
Diagnostic value of PET/CT is similar to that of conventional MRI and even better for detecting small peritoneal implants in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. February 24, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, Uncategorized, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
Tags: abdomen, ablative surgery, cancer detection, CT scan, cytoreductive surgery, MRI, ovarian cancer, pelvis, peritoneal implants, pet scan, recurrence
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Diagnostic value of PET/CT is similar to that of conventional MRI and even better for detecting small peritoneal implants in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
Departments of aNuclear Medicine bRadiology cObstetrics and Gynecology dBiostatistics and Medical Informatics ePathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG) PET/CT in comparison with MRI for the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer.
Forty-seven patients with suspected ovarian cancer recurrence after total ablative or cytoreductive surgery, as well as neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, who had undergone F-FDG PET/CT imaging were recruited for the present study. All patients also underwent MRI within a month of F-FDG PET/CT for the same purpose. Recurrent cancer in the abdomen and pelvis was evaluated in each of the 47 patients and classified as either distant metastasis or local pelvic recurrence involving the vaginal stump, peritoneal implants, supradiaphragmatic region, and/or abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes. Special attention was paid to peritoneal implants. These were divided into five groups according to size of the implants: less than 0.5 cm (group 1), 0.5-1 cm (group 2), 1-2 cm (group 3), 2-3 cm (group 4), and larger than 3 cm (group 5). PET/CT findings were compared with abdominopelvic MR findings. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Thirty-nine of 47 patients were found to have recurrent ovarian cancer. Both PET/CT and MRI were negative for recurrence in six patients. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT were 97.5, 100, 100, 87.5, and 97.8%, respectively, whereas those of MRI were 95, 85.7, 97.4, 75, and 93.6%, respectively. For the peritoneal implants in groups 2 and 3, the sensitivity, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy values of PET/CT were significantly better than those of MRI (P<0.05).
The present study revealed that PET/CT is similar to conventional MRI for the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer. PET/CT has greater accuracy in the detection of small-to-medium-sized (<2 cm) peritoneal implants compared with MRI. This may affect surgical decision making.
Epigenetics in ovarian cancer. February 24, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, Uncategorized, uterine cancer.
Tags: advanced-stage disease, CpG island methylation, epigenetics, gynecological cancer, histone modification, ovarian cancer
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Epigenetics in ovarian cancer.
Department of Reproductive Medicine and Gynaecology, Gynaecological Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Due to few early symptoms and a lack of early detection strategies, most patients are diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. Most of these patients, although initially responsive, eventually develop drug resistance. In this chapter, epigenetic changes in ovarian cancer are described. Various epigenetic changes including CpG island methylation and histone modification have been identified in ovarian cancer. These aberrations are associated with distinct disease subtypes and present in circulating serum of ovarian cancer patients. Several epigenetic changes have shown promise for their diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive capacity but still need further validation.In contrast to DNA mutations and deletions, epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible by epigenetic therapies. Promising preclinical studies show epigenetic drugs to enhance gene re-expression and drug sensitivity in ovarian cancercell lines and animal models.
Ovarian Cancer Research Resources, and Clinical Trials February 18, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, Uncategorized, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
Tags: clinical trials, ovarian cancer resources, research information
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Ovarian Cancer Research Resources, and Clinical Trials
Inclusion on the list does not constitute an endorsement of any clinical trial, or treatment method. Information only. Please check out any resource that may be listed.
As a matter of policy, the Ovarian Cancer National Alliance does not endorse any individual clinical trial or treatment.
ACRIN: American College of Radiology Image Network
Clinical Trials and Insurance Coverage: A Resource Guide
Information on insurance coverage for clinical trials from the National Cancer Institute.
Clinical Trials: Questions and Answers
National Cancer Institute fact sheet on clinical trials from 2006.
Clinical Trials: What You Need to Know
Information on cancer clinical trials, including results of research that The Coalition of National Cancer Cooperative Groups conducted with cancer patients who have participated in clinical trials.
Learning About Clinical Trials
Fact sheets and brochures on clinical trials from The National Cancer Institute that can be downloaded in PDF format. (The section on patient care costs is particularly helpful.)
10 Step Guide to Finding a Cancer Treatment Clinical Trial
Participating in a Trial: Questions to Ask Your Doctor
Lists sample questions related to clinical trials ranging from questions specific to study design to questions associated with insurance costs. Provides a good starting point for women who want to put together a list of questions to ask their doctors.
The Women’s Cancer Network—Clinical Trials
Information on how clinical trials work and about specific clinical trials for gynecologic cancers.
American Association for Cancer Research
Information about research and links to publications and databases.
American Institute for Cancer Research
Educates the public about the results of research on diet and cancer prevention.
American Society of Clinical Oncology
Database of cancer research abstracts and current news on cancer research.
British Medical Journal
Original scientific studies, review and educational articles, and papers commenting on the clinical, scientific, social, political, and economic factors affecting health.
Hereditary Cancer Institute
Research and educational information about hereditary cancer as well as information on genetic testing and links of interest to those affected by cancer.
Journal of American Medical Association
An international peer-reviewed general medical journal promoting the science and art of medicine and the betterment of the public health.
Journal of Clinical Oncology
Original research and reviews about women’s cancers, supportive care and quality of life issues, prevention, and pharmacology.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Access to articles about research in gynecologic oncology.
National Center of Competence in Research Molecular Oncology
Information about cancer research, comprehensive glossary, and links for further reading.
Ovarian Cancer Research Directory
Ovarian Cancer Research Fund
Links to resources as well as information about fundraising events (primarily in New York).
Ovarian Cancer Research Program
Information from the Department of Defense about the Congressional appropriations and funding for the Ovarian Cancer Research Program.
Research for Ovarian Cancer and Continued Survival (ROCCS)
Offers education and public awareness about ovarian cancer.
Ovarian Cancer Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs)
Information about National Cancer Institute funded programs that focus on interdisciplinary cancer research with an exchange between specialists in laboratories and clinical settings.
The Lancet Interactive Medical Journal
An independent journal without affiliation to a medical or scientific organization that publishes high-quality clinical trials.
The Ovarian Cancer Institute
Information about ovarian cancer research, news, and events.
Tags: internet support groups, online resources, ovarian cancer, treatment resources
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Ovarian Cancer Treatment Resources
Inclusion in the list does not constitute an endorsement of any individual, provider, hospital or medical facility
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute—Ovarian Cancer
Information about treatment, clinical trials, screening, and prevention.
Learn more about nuclear medicine and the use of molecular imaging for cancer patients.
Get Palliative Care
Provides information about palliative care, which focuses on relieving pain, stress, and other symptoms of serious illness.
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Provides information about integrated programs in cancer treatment, clinical trials, education programs and cancer prevention.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Provides information about treatment for ovarian cancer in addition to research and support for cancer patients and researchers.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network
Clinical recommendations and information about events and resources.
National Lymphedema Network
Education and guidance for lymphedema patients, health care professionals and the general public on primary and secondary lymphedema.
Radiation Therapy Answers
Information about radiation therapy from physician members of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Help finding a radiation oncologist.
RxList—The Internet Drug Index
Provides information about prescription drugs to consumers and health care professionals.
Understanding the Approval Process for New Cancer Treatments
Information on the role of the FDA in the approval process for new cancer treatments.
Internet support groups (listservs or chat rooms) are free email or chat room discussions on specific topics of interest. Email subscribers receive copies of emails sent by any members of the group to the listserv. Some active groups generate dozens of messages a day. If you subscribe to the “digest” mode, you will receive one email containing all of the messages posted that day. Email discussion groups are an excellent way to connect with people in similar circumstances.
Chat rooms can be either “live” chats or bulletin board-type chats. A live chat is similar to walking into a room where a discussion is already taking place except you will be typing your messages. In a bulletin board-type chat room, a participant may post a message, and others will usually respond right below that message. With any of these support groups, you may elect to participate or just observe by reading the messages of others and the responses that their messages generate.
ACOR (Association of Cancer Online Resources) hosts dozens of cancer email discussion groups. Discussion groups hosted by ACOR include OVARIAN–an unmoderated discussion list with over 1,000 subscribers. ACOR also has discussion groups on CANCER, CANCER-FATIGUE, CANCER-PAIN, CANCER-PARENTS, and dozens of others. ACOR offers a convenient automatic subscription feature for discussion mailing lists at http://www.acor.org. Click on mailing lists (on the left nav bar) then click on the group you are interested in joining.
The National Ovarian Cancer Coalition (NOCC) hosts a chat area for women with ovarian cancer. To participate, go to www.ovarian.org/ and click on “Chat” listed under “Support” on the left nav bar. They have a feature that allows participants to schedule chat events on particular topics. The NOCC also hosts multiple listservs on various topics including a resource list, awareness list, caregiver’s list, humor list, and others. To subscribe, click on “Mailing lists” under “Support” on the left nav bar.
OncoLink, at the University of Pennsylvania, has an online FAQ (document answering frequently asked questions) about cancer listservs athttp://oncolink.org/resources/faq/listserv.html. If you would like to learn a bit more about them and get answers to some specific questions, this is a good place to start.
Steve Dunn, a cancer survivor, clearly explains cancer types and staging, chemotherapy, pathology reports, and the pros and cons of researching your own cancer. He recommends books, includes inspirational patient stories, and has links to many of the best cancer sites on the Web. CancerNet
An NCI sponsored comprehensive source of cancer information including types of cancer, treatment options, clinical trials, genetics, coping, support, resources, and cancer literature. CancerNet is one of the most comprehensive information sources for cancer patients on the Net. CanSearch: Online Guide to Cancer Resources
Service of the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship that leads you step-by-step through an online search.
- Clinical Trials
A consumer-friendly database sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that provides information on more than 4,000 federal and private medical studies involving patients at more than 47,000 locations nationwide. Conversations
International newsletter for women fighting ovarian cancer. Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry
Roswell Park Cancer Institute hosts an international registry of families with two or more members with ovarian cancer. They promote ovarian cancer research and offer a help line, education, and peer support for women with a high risk of ovarian cancer. OncoLink
University of Pennsylvania cancer specialists founded OncoLink in 1994 to help cancer patients, families, healthcare professionals, and the general public get accurate cancer-related information at no charge. It contains information on ovarian cancer, causes, treatment options, hormones, symptom management, causes, psychosocial support and personal experiences. PubMed
The National Library of Medicine’s free search service provides access to the 9 million citations in MEDLINE (with links to participating on-line journals) and other related databases. Also includes FAQs, news, and clinical alerts. Ovarian Cancer Research Notebook
The OCRN is a comprehensive list of articles on treatment for ovarian cancer that contains approximately 3,000 documents. It is maintained and upgraded by the National Ovarian Cancer Association of Toronto, Canada.The Women’s Cancer Networkwww.wcn.org
- Site developed by the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists to help prevent, detect, and conquer cancer in women. It has cancer information, a bookstore, survivor stories, links to other web sites, and a helpful find-a-doc feature.
Ovarian Cancer Resources Education, Genetics Information, Financial and Legal Support February 18, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, Uncategorized, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
Tags: education, financial support, genetics, legal support, ovarian cancer, research, resources, support, young survivors
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Cancer Resources Education, Genetics Information, Financial and Legal Support:
A Single Light
Searchable database of cancer-related Web sites.
American Cancer Society
Information on cancer, research, advocacy, and community programs and services.
American Pain Foundation
Online toolkit for assessing pain as a part of a treatment plan.
Association of Cancer Online Resources
Collection of online communities that provide information for cancer survivors.
Comprehensive listing of credible Web sites for those affected by cancer.
Cancer information from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Offers podcasts, feature articles, and links to current news.
Educational programming and information for health care professionals, cancer patients, and their family members.
Offers the latest news, research, and information on prevention, detection, and treatment of ovarian cancer, as well as interactive decision support tools.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC, in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office on Women’s Health, established the Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign to raise awareness of the five main types of gynecologic cancer: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar.
Foundation for Women’s Cancer
Brochures and other educational material for women who have or who are at risk of developing a gynecologic cancer. For a complete list of Foundation survivor courses click here.
Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry
An international registry of families with two or more relatives with ovarian cancer. Offers a helpline, education, cancer information and peer support for women with a high risk of ovarian cancer.
Government and nonprofit health and human services information. Links to carefully selected information and Web sites from over 1,500 health-related organizations.
Johns Hopkins Pathology’s Ovarian Cancer Web
Provides information, personal stories, and an online community. Gives specific information about each individual ovarian tumor type.
Living with Cancer
Information about how to manage common problems faced by those living with cancer.
Multinational Association of Supportive Cancer Care
National Cancer Institute
Information about cancer topics, genetics, clinical trials, research, and statistics. Helpful links as well as online assistance with Nation Cancer Institute’s information and cancer-related resources.
National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship
Offers audio Cancer Survival Toolbox and information about finding resources online.
National LGBT Cancer Network
Information for survivors and health care providers about increased cancer risks, decreased screening rates, and unique survivability issues of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans gender cancer survivors and those at risk.
National Ovarian Cancer Coalition (NOCC)
Offers information about ovarian cancer as well as a helpline (1-888-682-7426) for support.
Cancer-related information for cancer patients, families, health care professionals, and the general public.
Ovarian Cancer Canada
Provides support, education, and research as well as a toll free support line.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: The Anderson Network
Online information and downloadable PDFs about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and support.
Women’s Cancer Network – Ovarian Cancer
An interactive Web site about gynecologic cancer, helping women to understand more about the disease, learn about treatment options, and gain access to new or experimental therapies.
Financial and Legal Support
Professional support services to people with cancer, caregivers, children, loved ones, and the bereaved. Offers help finding counseling and financial support.
Links to financial and legal resources and government agencies.
Clinical Trials and Insurance Coverage: A Resource Guide
Information on insurance coverage for clinical trials from the National Cancer Institute.
Corporate Angel Network
Help arranging free air transportation for cancer patients traveling to treatment using empty seats on corporate jets.
Bridge of Blessings
Information and application for women with cancer in need of financial assistance.
Family and Medical Leave Act Advisor
Provides information on the Family and Medical Leave Act. Lists questions to help determine the rights of employees and employers.
Federal Trade Commissioner
Information about a Federal Trade Commissioner brochure issued to advise the terminally ill who are considering selling their life insurance policies in order to pay bills.
Look Good…Feel Better
Help from a free, non-medical, brand-neutral, national public service program supported by corporate donors to offset appearance-related changes from cancer treatment.
Official government information about Medicaid and Medicare.
Official government information for people with Medicare.
Mercy Medical Airlift
Information about this nonprofit organization dedicated to serving people in situations of compelling human need through the provision of charitable air transportation.
Oncolink—An Introduction to Viatical Settlements
Offers information and resources for the seriously ill who are considering selling their life insurance policy to a viatical settlement company.
Patient Advocate Foundation
An active liaison between patient and insurer, employer and/or creditor. Information about resolving a patient’s insurance, job retention and/or debt crisis matters through case managers, doctors and attorneys.
Rise Above It
Provides grants and scholarships to young adult survivors and care providers who face financial, emotional, and spiritual challenges.
Assists with basic needs that ease the financial stress patients and their families face by paying bills (electric, phone, water, gas, etc.), rent, tutoring, small toys, transportation and other incidental needs that arise.
The National Collegiate Cancer Foundation
Provides services and support for young adults diagnosed with cancer. Offers need-based financial support for young adult survivors pursuing higher education.
courtesy: Ovarian Cancer.org
Tags: CA125, diagnosis, HE4, ovarian carcinoma, Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm, screening test, serum marker
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HE4–a novel promising serum marker in the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma.
2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. email@example.com
Biomarkers have a wide range of applications in the management of several cancers. To date serum markers have been the most extensively used biomarkers in everyday practice but few markers are elevated in preclinical or premalignant disease, limiting their importance for estimating risk or for screening. Human epididymis protein-4 (HE4) is a novel serum marker which is more sensitive in the prediction of risk of ovarian malignancy than CA125 alone in patients with a pelvic mass. HE4 in combination with CA125 appears to be an effective tool for the early detection of recurrence or monitoring the response to therapy. Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm, utilizing the dual marker combination of HE4 and CA125, can be used to stratify both postmenopausal and premenopausal women into high- and low-risk groups, allowing for an effective triage of women to appropriate institutions for their care. A review of HE4 and its feasibility as a novel diagnostic tool in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer is presented.
Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer. Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer. February 18, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, Uncategorized, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
Tags: angiogenesis, cytokines, Epithelial ovarian cancer, ovarian cancer, paraneoplastic thrombocytosis, platelet counts, tumor
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Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer.
Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77230-1439, USA.
The mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer and the role that platelets play in abetting cancer growth are unclear.
We analyzed clinical data on 619 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer to test associations between platelet counts and disease outcome. Human samples and mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis. The effects of platelets on tumor growth and angiogenesis were ascertained.
Thrombocytosis was significantly associated with advanced disease and shortened survival. Plasma levels of thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated in patients who had thrombocytosis as compared with those who did not. In mouse models, increased hepatic thrombopoietin synthesis in response to tumor-derived interleukin-6 was an underlying mechanism of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis. Tumor-derived interleukin-6 and hepatic thrombopoietin were also linked to thrombocytosis in patients. Silencing thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 abrogated thrombocytosis in tumor-bearing mice. Anti-interleukin-6 antibody treatment significantly reduced platelet counts in tumor-bearing mice and in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, neutralizing interleukin-6 significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel in mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of an antiplatelet antibody to halve platelet counts in tumor-bearing mice significantly reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis.
These findings support the existence of a paracrine circuit wherein increased production of thrombopoietic cytokines in tumor and host tissue leads to paraneoplastic thrombocytosis, which fuels tumor growth. We speculate that countering paraneoplastic thrombocytosis either directly or indirectly by targeting these cytokines may have therapeutic potential. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
Hereditary ovarian cancer: Beyond the usual suspects. February 13, 2012Posted by patoconnor in cancer, gynecological cancer, ovarian cancer, tubal cancer, Uncategorized, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer.
Tags: BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, DNA, hereditary ovarian cancer, RAD51C, RAD51D
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Hereditary ovarian cancer: Beyond the usual suspects.
In the past, hereditary ovarian carcinoma was attributed almost entirely to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, with a much smaller contribution from mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Recently, three new ovarian cancer susceptibility genes have been identified: RAD51C, RAD51D, and BRIP1. In addition, germline mutations in women with ovarian carcinoma have been recently identified in many of the previously identified breast cancer genes in the Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA pathway. While mutations in genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 are each individually rare, together they make up a significant proportion of cases. With at least 16 genes implicated in hereditary ovarian cancer to date, comprehensive testing forovarian cancer risk will require assessment of many genes. As the cost of genomic sequencing continues to fall, the practice of evaluating cancer susceptibility one gene at a time is rapidly becoming obsolete. New advances in genomic technologies will likely accelerate the discovery of additional cancer susceptibility genes and increase the feasibility of comprehensive evaluation of multiple genes simultaneously at low cost. Improved recognition of inherited risk will identify individuals who are candidates for targeted prevention. In addition, identifying inherited mutations in a variety of FA-BRCA pathway genes may aid in identifying individuals who will selectively benefit from PARP inhibitors.